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Laminectory is the surgical procedure performed to remove the lamina. Lamina is a small part of the bone, which mades vertebra present in the spine. It is also done to remove the spine’s bone spurs.
When spinal stenosis is present with the candidate, laminectomy is usually preferred option. The procedure helps removing the damaged discs, bone and gives enough room for the spinal column and spinal nerves.
The symptoms that are usually found are the following. • Numbness or pain felt in one leg or both the legs. Heaviness or weakness is flet in the legs or buttocks. • Problem to control or empty the bowel and bladder • When walking or standing, symptoms are worse
Diagnosis is done with CT myelogram or MRI for confirmation that spinal stenosis is existing. Doctor discusses the present medication that the candidate has been taking presently and to be discontinued for a while, before and after the surgery is performed. Smoking and alcohol must be stopped, as they may hamper healing process and may lead to complications. Physical therapist might be needed for some kind of physical exercises to be done, before the surgery and it involves practice the use of crutches. The patient has to stop eating and drinking before 6 to12 hours.Converting the food to energy Regulation of the blood clot Forming the bile and then production of proteins used for blood plasma Clear of the blood from poisonous substances like drugs
The procedure laminectomy makes the spinal canal to open so that the nerves of spine will have enough room. This procedure is usually done in association with spinal fusion, foraminotomy and discectomy. The patient would asleep with no pain during the surgery, as the general anesthesia is given.
The patient lies down the table. At the middle of the neck and back, a small incision is done by the surgeon. The muscles, skin and ligaments present inside it are moved to one side. A surgical microscope might also be used during this procedure to view what is inside in the back, clearly. Lamina bones that are present on both of the spine are removed either partially or completely. Sometimes spinous process is done and sharp part is also removed from the spine. Additionally, other small fragments of disc, other soft tissues and bone spurs are also removed. Sometimes optionally, widening of the opening would also be done with foraminotomy for nerve roots that travel out from the spine. To ensure that the spinal column becomes stable enough post the surgery, spinal fusion might also be done. After the procedure, the tissues and muscles are put back into their own places. The incision is then finally sewn. The entire surgery process would take around 1 to 3 hours of duration.Biliary Atresia – This condition occurs from either absence of the bile ducts or abnormal development of the same. Acute Hepatic Necrosis – This condition is caused because the tissue in the liver dies. Liver Cancers – Primary tumors in the liver, and not yet spread to the external parts of the liver. Metabolic Disease – This is a condition, caused from the chemical activity, caused by the liver in the cells. Autoimmune Hepatitis – Damage and destruction of the liver because of the chronic inflammation caused in the liver.
After the surgery, the patient is advised to get out from the bed and start walking, after the anesthesia wears off. If spinal fusion is not included in the surgery, most of the patients may be discharged from 1 to 3 days from the hospital.Blood vessels blocked in the newly transplanted liver Infection Block of bile duct Bile Leakage No function of the new liver. Treatment regimen noncompliance Serious liver disease persisting, even after the transplantation Other medical conditions, like sever cardiac problem, which could not tolerate the hard surgical procedure Difficult treatment of current or recurring infection Alcohol consumption Metastatic cancer, spread around the source location
Risks associated with any kind of surgery are, • Infection that may include in bladder, kidney or lungs • Blood loss • Breathing problems • Clotting of blood in legs that may extend to lungs • Reactions to the administered medicine • Stroke or heart attack during the surgery Risks associated with the spine surgery are, • Infections in vertebral bones or in wounds • Damage occurring to the spinal nerve that may result in pain, loss of feel or weakness • Re-occurrence of the back pain again in the future
When spinal fusion is also done, additionally, spinal column present both below and above the spinal fusion is likely to cause problems in the future.Urgency – based on the critical condition of the patient Diagnostic Tests – to assess the liver and overall status of health of the patient. Psychological and social evaluation – it includes assessing the stress, family support, financial condition, etc., which influence the final outcome of the transplantation. Blood Tests – to assess matching potential of the donor liver with the liver of the patient
After the spine surgery is performed, future problems are possible to be arised related to the spine. Spinal column present below and above the fusion done is more likely to create the problem, in case the spinal fusion is also included in the surgery.You have to wear a gown after removing your cloths It starts with IV or intravenous line on the hand. Heart and blood pressure monitoring catheter are inserted to the wrist and neck. Additional catheters may be inserted at subclavian areas. You need to lye on the table. Excessive hair is removed at the site of surgery A catheter is arranged to drain urine After sedation, a tube is inserted into the lungs to control breathing through a ventilator. Skin is cleaned using an antiseptic solution A slant incision is done under the ribs. The diseased liver is separated from the structure and surrounding organs to remove and the veins and arteries are clamped to control the flow of blood to the liver Donor liver is taken and connected to the blood vessels of the patient, and blood flow is established. Bile ducts are connected Incision is closed Drain may be needed to place in the site of incision to control swelling Dressing is done
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