About Endometrial Cancer

Endometrial cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled expansion of cells from the uterus, which is the hollow, pear-shaped organ in women's pelvis. The outer layer that makes up the uterine lining is where cancer first develops. Uterine sarcoma is a separate type of cancer that can develop in the uterus but is somewhat less prevalent. Because endometrial cancer frequently causes abnormal vaginal bleeding, which notifies the women to test with their doctors, endometrial cancer is typically detected at an early stage. Surgery to remove the uterus usually cures cancer if it has been detected in the early stages.

Stages of Endometrial Cancer Include:

  • Stage I – Cancer confined only to the uterus.
  • Stage II – cancer spread to the cervix
  • Stage III – Cancer has spread to pelvic area lymph nodes and beyond the uterus but not spread to the rectum and bladder.
  • Stage IV –Cancer spread to the rectum, bladder, and other parts of the body.


  • Bleeding after menopause.
  • Bleeding in between menstrual cycles.
  • Watery or abnormal bloody discharge from the vagina.
  • Pain in and around the pelvis.
  • Weight loss
  • Bloating
  • Abdominal swelling

Risk Factor

Age: Postmenopausal women between the ages of 55 and 60 are more likely to develop endometrial cancer than other age groups.

Hormonal Imbalance: The levels of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone may affect a person's risk of getting endometrial cancer. Without progesterone, higher oestrogen levels could increase endometrial thickness and lead to cancer. Additionally at increased risk are women who are receiving oestrogen hormone therapy throughout the menopause phase.

Fat - Endometrial cancer is significantly more likely to affect women with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or above. Cancer risk increases along with BMI.

Inherited Genes - Endometrial cancer has a genetic cause known as Lynch syndrome, which frequently increases the risk of developing other cancers like colon and esophageal cancer due to aberrant mutations in inherited enzymes.


Several techniques exist for the detection of endometrial cancer. The pelvic exam is used to make the initial diagnosis.

Pelvic Examination - The doctor will use a speculum or their fingers to look for any abnormal growths or tumors in the vagina, uterus, and ovaries.

Transvaginal Ultrasound - During the scanning, a device known as a transducer will be put into the vagina to create audio-visual images of the uterus. The endometrium's thickness and texture are shown by the scan.

• Hysteroscope Detection - To inspect the uterus and endometrial structure, the doctor inserts a hysteroscope through the vagina into the uterus.

• Endometrial Biopsy – Cells from the uterine lining will be collected and sent to a lab for analysis in order to identify any abnormal cell growth. At the clinic, the procedure could be finished without anesthetic.

• Surgical Biopsy - Occasionally, the tissue from the biopsy won't be sufficient to validate the identification or the biopsy won't be obvious. It is likely that a procedure called dilatation and curettage (D&C) will be carried out to inspect the uterine tissue for cancer cells.

The stage of cancer can be determined by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan, Chest X –rays, Computerized Tomography (CT), and Blood Tests.

Treatment Options

Side Effects


Success Rate

The cancer's stage determines the success rate. Nearly 95% of these girls continue to have the condition when it is limited to the endometrium even after five decades from diagnosis. After five decades from the time of diagnosis, the survival rate will be about 65% when it spreads to other parts. The degree of metastasis affects the survival rate as well.